The middle point of the mirror is  called pole of the mirror. The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approx. So If you want any information regarding this course than Please call us on 8287971571 or 0261-4890014, Please call on 8287971571 or 0261-4890014., Thank u sir These notes r really helpful for me, This are really very helpful to me This sphere has a centre. A convex lens has power in positive and a concave lens has power in negative. E.g. By using concave mirror in solar furnace the concentrated rays of sunlight is obtained at focus which produces enormous amount of heat because of concentration. Absolute Refractive Index:- When one medium is taken as vacuum and speed of light is taken in it, then the refractive index of second medium with respect to vacuum is called Absolute Refractive Index and it is generally denoted by n2. The centres of these spheres are called centres of curvature of the lens. E.g. Why Are There Stones Alongside Railway Tracks? DK, 1998. Angle of reflection- Angle between reflected ray and normal .Denoted using ‘r’. Important terms in the case of spherical mirror: i) Pole: The centre of reflecting surface of a spherical mirror is known as Pole. In other words, for an observer these reflected rays appear to come at A' . The bouncing back of rays of light from a polished and shiny surface is called reflection or reflection of light. If the corpuscular theory of light (light is a particle) proposed by Newton was true, then the pattern on the screen should have been light in the shape and size of the slit. Two rays(AP and AQ) starting from A, incident on the mirror gets reflected as PP' and QQ' respectively from the mirror. The power of a lens is denoted by 'P'. ii)A spherical mirror, spherical mirror whose inner is polished and outer side is the reflecting surface is called convex mirror. The lens formula is valid for all situations for spherical lens. Rosen, 2013. Rules for image formation by converging lenses. Light energy is a kind of kinetic energy with the ability to make types of light visible to human eyes. Why does light go through some things and not others? For example, refractive index of water is 1.33 but that of turpentine is 1.47. Optical Density--is an inverse measure of the speed of light through the medium. The light ray may be objects self-light or reflected light. Therefore, it moves away from the normal. Image formation by convex lens by placing objects in the following positions: (a) Between principal focus, F1 and optical centre, O:-. These are best notes based on NCERT. Making study our hobby, these notes are very useful to all the class 10th students these are very helping for those students who takes these notes intrusting and difficult for those who do not takes intrust in these notes, It's very useful and east to understand it's good for preparing in les time. In the case of convex mirror: A ray directed towards principal focus goes parallel to principal axis after reflecting from the surface of a convex mirror. Size of image: Point sized, highly diminished. Focal length is equal to half of the radius of curvature. Notes is good but where is the of refraction of light, this notes are very simple for understanding thnk you this is very helpful app for students. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal to the interface of two transparent media at the point of incidence, all lie in the same plane. Ray incident obliquely to the principal axis: Ray obliquely to the principal axis goes obliquely after reflecting from the pole of the both concave and convex mirror and at the same angle. And my favourite part of this site is science..!! Light waves on the electromagnetic spectrum include those that are visible as well as those that are invisible to the human eye. It will be a different comment for u sir/madam. Degree of convergence and divergence depends upon the focal length of a lens. The ratio of sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is a constant, for the light of a given colour and for the given pair of media. (e) Optical centre: The central point of a lens is called its Optical Centre. var m = now.getMinutes(); } The distance of this image from the position of the mirror gives the approximate value of focal length of the mirror. The light from the Sun is converged at a point, as a sharp, bright spot by the mirror. The field of view is widest in case of a convex mirror, which enables it to show a wider area from behind. Ray diagrams for the formation of image by a concave mirror for various positions of the object are-. source: Everette Historical/ This law is also known as Snell’s law of refraction. In other words, the vertical plane in which the focal point lies is the focal plane. Concave mirrors are commonly used in torches, search-lights and vehicles headlights to get powerful parallel beams of light. What Would Happen If You Shot A Bullet On A Train? The radius of curvature of a spherical mirror is denoted by letter ‘R’. iii)Object between Centre of curvature (C) and Principal Focus (F): When the object is placed between centre of curvature and principal focus of concave mirror, a real image is formed beyond the centre of curvature (C). Let’s look at what happened over the years as people came to this important conclusion. All forms of electromagnetic radiation move at exactly this same speed in vacuum. now finally I am stepping into grade 11 .. unfortunately I can't help myself anymore as notes for grade 11 is not present.. Similarly, the refractive index of medium 1 with respect to medium 2 is denoted by n12. Waves do not travel in straight lines and cannot exhibit those properties outlined by Newton and Einstein. Focal length of a lens is half of the radius of curvature. var h = now.getHours(); For light rays striking a plane mirror, the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence. A number of scientists, including Fresnel, Young and Maxwell, are credited with investigating the wave-like properties of light. Examples of transparent objects are pure water, kerosene, turpentine. The refractive index of kerosene(1.44) is more than that of alcohol(1.36). Power of a lens is expressed in dioptre when the focal length is expressed in metre. The most commonly used type of curved mirror is the spherical mirror. Some mirrors have the silvering at the back like the ones used by us (normal use). i)A spherical mirror whose outer surface is polished and inner side is the reflecting surface is called concave mirror. LIGHT. Each of these surfaces forms a part of a sphere. If parallel rays traveling toward a converging mirror are not parallel to the main axis, they still come to a point after reflection, but not at the main focal point F.  We can visualize a plane that passes through F and is perpendicular to the main axis, as shown.

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