Thus in QED, it always involves at least one fermion loop. For bound states, this correction has proven to be notoriously difficult to evaluate. This observation is in full analogy to the one-loop self-energy whose imagi-nary part gives the one-photon decay rate 12 . Research 2, 012002(R) – Published 3 January 2020 In what follows, we will discuss the structure of the renormalization procedure for the photon and electron self-energy graphs as well as the vertex correction. CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): We investigate temperature behavior up to two loop level in QED in the background heat bath using real time formalism. We investigate two-loop higher-order binding corrections to the fine structure, which contribute to the spin-dependent part of the Lamb shift. loop. 2. and the quark contribution to the one-loop photon self-energy is computed (Sect. 15 refs., 3 figs. The EM self-field theory suggests that for a radiated photon moving at the speed of light─there are two internal sub-particles each half the total mass of the photon that move in two orthogonal directions (cyclotron and orbital motions). The thermal two-photon level broadening of the excited energy levels in the hydrogen and H-like helium is evaluated via the imaginary part of thermal two-loop self-energy correction for bound electron. IIE). Our calculation focuses on the so-called ``two-loop self-energy'' involving two virtual closed photon loops. occur if one interprets the two-photon decay rate as the imaginary part of the two-loop self-energy. The Feynman graphs contributing to the self-energy through one loop are given in Fig. [Show full abstract] Lamb shift induced by graphs containing the one-loop electron self-energy as a subgraph and by the graph containing two one-loop vertices are obtained. 9–11 , one obtains expressions for the N U CLEAR Nuclear Physics B397 (1993) 12342 P H VS I C S B North-Holland _____ Two-loop self-energy diagrams with different masses and the momentum expansion A.I. In QED, any connected diagram with just two external photon lines contributes to vacuum polarization. We discuss the photon self-energy in the infrared region and emphasize the most relevant modi cations due to the diquark condensates on the propagation properties of the photon (Sect. Davydychevand J.B. Tausk2 Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, P.O. Theory of the two-loop self-energy correction to the g factor in nonperturbative Coulomb fields B. Sikora, V. A. Yerokhin, N. S. Oreshkina, H. Cakir, C. H. Keitel, and Z. Harman Phys. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands Received 18 September 1992 Accepted for publication 2 February 1993 An algorithm for … In the photon case one has the fermion loop This is one of the divergent amplitudes shown in Fig. IIC and Sect. 1.1.2 The gauge boson self-energy Let us consider the gauge boson self-energy. Rev. IID). All the derivations are presented in the framework of rigorous quantum electrodynamic theory at finite temperatures and are applicable for the H-like ions. The thermal correction to the coupling constant in QED at low temperature are presented up to the two loop level. 4 for the photon and gluon cases. In the treat-ment used in Refs. The low energy e ective theory of the CFL phase, including

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