A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution.A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid.The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature.Major uses of solvents are in paints, paint removers, inks, dry cleaning. An important phrase in chemistry is "like dissolves like." The Biological Importance of Water as a Solvent and as a Medium for Living Organisms Water is possibly the most important substance life as we know it, as we need in order to survive; it also provides an environment for many species. Bio-derived solvents may be renewably derived replacements to established solvents or novel molecules such as dihydrolevoglucosenone, a bio-based alternative for dipolar aprotic solvents. The term ‘solvent’ can be defined as a substance that has the ability to dissolve a given solute to form a solution with it. Their molecular structure of an organic solvent always contains a carbon atom and some have hydrogen atoms. Common examples of solvents include water, ethanol, methanol, and acetone. In biology, this usually occurs when a solvent such as water depends on the concentration of a solute in the form of salt. Examples of solvents include water, acetone, turpentine and ethanol and examples of solutes include salt, sugar, iodine and copper sulfate. Osmosis occurs spontaneously and without any energy on the part of the cell. The process of osmosis . These solvents are mainly categorized based upon their molecular structures as natural and synthetic solvents. Some common examples of solvents are listed below. Solvent, substance, ordinarily a liquid, in which other materials dissolve to form a solution. A solvent must have the same polarity as the solute. Solvents may be predominantly acidic, predominantly basic, amphoteric (both), or aprotic (neither). Consider the example of organic solvent benzene having six carbon atoms present in the organic solvent. All cells contain a minimum of 85% of water, with most fluids inside and outside of the cell likely to have at least 90% water. Typical examples of bio-derived solvents include bio-ethanol, limonene and 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). Polar solvents (e.g., water) favor formation of ions; nonpolar ones (e.g., hydrocarbons) do not. Although solvents are mostly used in the liquid state, it is possible for solvents to exist in the solid and gaseous phase as well. Distance solvent front migrated (mm) Figure 1 – Carotene (orange) – Carotene – Psychoanalyst Pigments in Chloroplast – Chlorophyll – Chlorophyll A (bluish green) – Chlorophyll B (yellowish green) Conclusion As expected the solvent has caused the pigments to migrate into their groups of solubility. To describe the process and mechanism of osmosis, we take two solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane.

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