In order to evaluate the parts above, we can ask ourselves questions based on these standards. Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools by Richard Paul & Linda Elder The intellectual standards include: Consistent application of the standards of thinking to the elements of thinking result in the development of intellectual traits of: Habitual utilization of the intellectual traits produce a well-cultivated critical thinker who is able to: Paul, R. and Elder, L. (2010). Design thinking, innovation and user experience. Good critical thinking requires having a command of these standards. Critical thinking is an important learning outcome for higher education, yet ... (Paul, Elder, & Bartell, 1997). Courage represents developing a consciousness to address ideas fairly regardless its point of view or our negative emotions about it. All reasoning is expressed through, and shaped by, Raise vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely, Gather and assess relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively. Attempt – This part includes the attempts that previously addressed the topic or attempts to solve a problem. (Paul and Elder, 2001). My teaching included graphic design, digital design (Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, etc. According to Paul and Elder (1997 ,2006), the ultimate goal is for the standards of reasoning to become infused in all thinking so as to become the guide to better and better reasoning. Keywords By applying the reasoning parts and encouraging people to come with their reasons, they start to build confidence in their reason and think in a rational way. I'm a design lecturer, author, and researcher. By understanding the parts of our thoughts and how to evaluate our reasoning related to each part, we can improve our thoughts through the time. The critical thinking provides an efficient method for designers, design students, and researchers for evaluating arguments and ideas through rational inductive and deductive reasoning in order to improving thinking about ideas. Intellectual Courage Intellectual Perseverance These standards include clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, and fairness. The point of View – this part includes our point of view such as the perspective that we take while thinking about the topic. Critical thinking is that mode of thinking – about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them. The conclusion may include the suggested solution of a specific problem. (Paul and Elder, 2001). Our minds may use these parts over the course to think about the idea: Purpose – This part of our thinking include defining a goal or objective of the topic. For instance, we can think about the product from the consumer perspective rather than the business perspective. Confidence in Reason As a result, we eliminate biases, distractions, and similar factors that can negatively affect our decisions and judgments. Dr. Linda Elder is currently an author, an educational psychologist and the president of the Foundation dedicated to Critical Thinking. While participants were “eager to promote criti This part is related to develop the ability to integrate with others intellectual reasoning and avoid the confusion that comes from our own reasoning. For examples, the goal may include solving a problem or achieve a target. This will help ensure that the topic is clearly addressed in all the critical thinking process stages. For example, we assume that all apples are red and start to research the different types of trees to know that some apples are green and some are red. In 2001, Paul and Elder introduced the critical thinking framework that helps students to master their thinking dimensions through identifying the thinking parts and evaluate the usage of these parts. it depends on recognizing that one claims what one’s actually knows. This trait develops the ability to start with a fair look at all the reasoning and traits all the viewpoints alike putting aside one’s feelings, raises, and interests. Also, it helps us to develop our ability to a evaluate ideas regardless our presumptions and perceptions about it. The above reasoning parts require good quality standard in order to achieve its goals and ensure the accuracy of results. The critical thinking process is based on three main stages; observe the problem to build rational knowledge, ask questions to analyze and evaluate data, and find answers to the questions that can be formulated into a solution for the problem. The below table provides examples to the questions that we can ask in order o evaluate the equality of our ideas. Intellectual Empathy Data, Information, and Evidence – Here, we cover the data and information related to the topic. Despite her executive role at the Center for Critical Thinking, she alongside Paul also promotes personal development and research on the topic. For example, this part may include all the theories related to the application of a specific solution. Fair-mindedness also, it develops how we can see the parts of reasoning of the others such as the viewpoints, assumptions, and ideas. The framework aims to add improving our reasoning through identifying its different elements through three main elements; elements of reasoning, intellectual standards, and intellectual traits. Implications and Consequences – All the reasons must lead to consequences that are a result of implementing the results of the the reasoning process. I am a jury member in design competitions including the Adobe Design Achievement Awards, A'Design Awards and Poster for Tomorrow. Inferences and Interpretations – The last part includes the concluded solutions based on the previous parts. These stages are translated into six steps (6 Steps for Effective Critical Thinking): Based on the above, the essential part of the critical thinking represents building a clear coherent reasoning for the argument in hand. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts & Tools Author: Richard Paul and Linda Elder Subject: The essence of critical thinking concepts and tools distilled into a 20-page pocket-size guide. this helps us to build rational reasoning despite what is standing against it. Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework. My industrial experience includes more than 15 years working digital design, branding, and media.As a published author, my industrial and academic experience reflect on my list of published books and articles. As a result of the application for the above reasoning parts and validating them using intellectual standards, The below characteristics are expected to be developed, known as the intellectual traits: Intellectual Humility Additionally, seven main advantages (intellectual traits) can be achieved. Whenever we have a topic or argument to discuss, we tend to use a number of thinking types in order to understand the topic in hand. The framework aims to add improving our reasoning through identifying its different elements through three main elements; elements of reasoning, intellectual standards, and intellectual traits. The Paul-Elder framework has three components: The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools. In design, we can use critical thinking to escape our current mindsets in order to reach innovative outcomes. Intellectual Integrity The "parts" or elements of thinking are as follows: The intellectual standards that are to these elements are used to determine the quality of reasoning. Also, I read design with my PhD research focuses on design as a driver for medical innovation in patient-centred healthcare technology.Previously, I taught at the American University in Cairo for four years.

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